Eukaryotes in the Disease Entamoeba Histolytica

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Abstract

Eukaryotes are one of the basic cell structures that make up a living being. They have individual functions, as well as being an aid to other processes. In the disease, Entamoeba Histolytica, higher-level eukaryotes plan an important role in its development and progression.

Introduction

The basic structure of the eukaryotic cell is made up of five main components. The plasma membrane, the glycocalyx (external to the plasma membrane), cytoplasm (the semifluid), and the cytoskeleton (microfilaments and microtubules are meant to suspend organelles, allow motion, and give the eukaryote shape). The last component is the “presence of characteristic membrane” that encloses the subcellular organelles (The Biology Project, 2004). Characteristic organelles of the basic eukaryote are the nucleus, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane (The Biology Project, 2004). It is one of the basic cells that make up living beings.

Entamoeba histolytica is a “human intestinal pathogen” that affects over 50 million people all over the world, and it is the cause of 100,000 deaths each year (Mittal, Welter & Temesvari, 2008). It is transmitted by the ‘fecal-oral route,’ which means that it is spread when the water and food supply is contaminated. Before it becomes invasive, the disease forms motile trophozoites that result from excystation in the small intestine as well as the colon, in reaction with the mucin layer. “In the invasive stage of amoebiasis, E. histolytica trophozoites breach the mucus-secreting epithelium of the human colon and encounter the submucosa, which is comprised of loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and ECM components, including collagen and fibronectin” (Mittal, et al, 2008). There is also a link from E. histolytica to eukaryotes in the body:

Several lines of evidence suggest that adhesion of E. histolytica to ECM may be likened to focal adhesions of higher eukaryotes. This interaction is also believed to activate parasite signal transduction pathways and virulence (Mittal, et al, 2008).

A critical hit with this disease is that it affects the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. It is a major health concern in developing countries. In some cases, the disease affects the brain, liver, and lung functions.

Works Cited

Mittal, K., Welter, B.H. & Temesvari, L.A., (2008). Entamoeba histolytica. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2615684/.

The Biology Project. (2004). Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, & Viruses. University of Arizona. Retrieved from http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/page3.html.