1) The unique way hydrogen and oxygen bond to form water molecules allows water to support life on earth. Water molecules have polarity, which attracts other molecules to them. Polarity makes it possible for water to dissolve polar substances more easily. This means that water can deliver dissolved nutrients and minerals to living things. It also has high surface tension, which makes it easy to move through plant roots, stems and blood vessels in the body.
2) Mitochondria produce energy in the cell through respiration. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is used for transportation of proteins. Ribosomes create protein. Lysosomes use hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion. Peroxisomes protect the cells form the toxic hydrogen peroxide they make.
3) Chloroplasts, Chlorophyll, and the cell wall.
4) RNA contains ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose. DNA pairs its bases adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine while RNA pairs adenine with uracil and guanine with cytosine. DNA transmits genetic information while RNA carries information from the nucleus to the ribosome.
5) Measles is caused by rubella and are avoidable with a vaccination. Epstein-Barr is caused by mononucleosis. Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus. Varicella-zoster causes chickenpox and shingles.
6) Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and chromosomes. Prokaryotic cells lack most of the organelles that eukaryotic cells contain (like mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus)
7) Cells that line the walls of the lungs use cilia, as well as muscle cells and the cells that line the intestine.
8) A scanning electron microscope is best for viewing a 3D image of a damaged bone, while a transmission electron microscope is best for viewing a thin slice of tissue.