The Increase of Federal Requirements for Handgun Purchase

The following sample English annotated bibliography is 1555 words long, in MLA format, and written at the undergraduate level. It has been downloaded 733 times and is available for you to use, free of charge.

Tillett, Emily. “After Florida Shooting, What's the Status of the ‘Fix NICS’ Bill?” CBS News, CBS Interactive Inc., 19 Feb. 2018, Accessed 13 April 2018.

In this article posted on the CBS News website, the author, Emily Tillett, discusses the status of the 2017 Fix NCIS Act, a bipartisan bill drafted to increase federal screening of potential gun buyers. Tillett explains the inception of the bill, outlines its provisions, lists the members of the House and Senate who support it, and describes its likelihood of passage. Tillett’s main point is to showcase the legislative and executive momentum behind the bill. The article is informational in nature as the author describes the bill and the efforts taken to pass it. 

The article is moderately credible; it is a product of a news corporation that has been known to possess a slightly liberal bias and concede to the desires of its advertisers. Moreover, Tillett focuses mainly on support for the bill rather than opposition to it, implying that she is in favor of its passage. 

Since this article provides information about federal initiatives to increase gun purchase requirements, I will use it in the background section of my essay; it will help me demonstrate that there exists bipartisan support for an increase in handgun purchasing requirements and it will help me identify some of the congressmen who are in support of this increase.

Johnson, David. “The Gun Loophole Congress Isn't Talking About.” Time, Time Inc., 27 Feb. 2018, Accessed 13 April 2018.

In this article posted on the Time website, the author, David Johnson, describes the gun purchase loophole that led, in 2016, to the sale of 4,170 guns to people with mental illnesses, criminal records, and other characteristics that should have barred them from purchasing firearms. Johnson’s main point is that this loophole endangers the public. He illustrates this point by describing how the loophole led and could lead to guns being used for mass shootings. This article is argumentative in nature; Johnson wants to persuade the audience that legislative efforts should be taken to close this loophole.

The article is moderately credible; though Johnson incorporates a great deal of factual evidence, he clearly favors imposing tighter restrictions on gun purchasing. The argument he employs in this article, that lax regulations lead to loopholes that allow guns to fall into the hands of ineligible individuals, is a clear example of his bias.

I will use this article in the argument section of my essay because it will help me showcase the possible dangers of not increasing requirements and it will help me discuss why federal officials should address loopholes that inadvertently lead to the purchase of handguns by ineligible members of the public. 

Lester, David, and Mary E. Murrell. “The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 12, no. 3, 1982, pp. 131–140., doi:10.1111/j.1943-278x.1982.tb00935.x. Accessed 13 April 2018.

In this peer-reviewed article from Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, the official journal of the American Association of Suicidology, the authors, David Lester and Mary E. Murrell, address the effects of handgun control laws on suicide rates. They conduct an analysis of data from different states to illustrate their main point—that states with tighter handgun control laws have lower suicide by firearm rates. The article is argumentative in nature; Lester and Murrell want to persuade the audience that stricter handgun control laws prevent suicides. 

The article is credible; it is from a peer-reviewed journal produced by a nonprofit organization that researches suicide and suicide prevention strategies. Moreover, the authors utilize scientific methods to come to their conclusion. Also, it is likely that, before this study was published, its findings were analyzed for statistical significance.

I will use this article in the argument section of my essay because it will help me showcase how stricter handgun control requirements prevent self-inflicted deaths; it will also help me showcase how specific states have gone about implementing stricter requirements and how their methods could be used on a federal level.

La Valle, James M. “‘Gun Control’ vs. ‘Self-Protection’: A Case against the Ideological Divide.” Justice Policy Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, 2013, pp. 1–26., Accessed 13 April 2018.

In this peer-reviewed article from the Justice Policy Journal, the online journal produced by the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, the author, James M. La Valle, presents a study comparing the effects of ‘right to carry’ and gun control laws on homicide rates. La Valle analyzes various sets of statistical data to illustrate his chief points—that ‘right to carry’ laws may reduce homicide rates, while gun control laws have no discernable effect. The article is both informational and argumentative; La Valle presents numerical data illustrating the relationship between guns and homicide. 

This article is credible, it is from a peer-reviewed journal produced by a nonprofit organization that researches criminal justice issues. Lavelle uses scientific methods to analyze his data and generate discussion about how and why certain laws affect or do not affect gun homicide and total homicide rates in specific states.

I will use this article in the refutation section of my essay because it will help me present evidence that opposes the notion that stricter handgun control reduces gun-related deaths. It will also be useful because it will help me discuss how those who oppose stricter gun control policies believe that guns have a deterrent effect on crime and violence.

Webster, Daniel W, and Jon S Vernick, editors. Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

This book, edited by Daniel W. Webster and Jon S Vernick, is a result of efforts by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; it is a compilation of scholarly articles about gun violence and policy. The text presents analyses from public health and legal experts to illustrate two main points—that policymakers should use research when making decisions about gun policy and that more regulations on gun purchasing can reduce gun-related deaths. The text is both informational and argumentative; it presents information about gun violence and policy to persuade readers that stricter gun control policies should be enforced. 

The text is credible; it is an academic project from a reputable university and it is comprised of documents written by experts in the fields of public health and law. Each of the text’s contributors uses scientific methods to collect and analyze data, and they utilize this data to report their findings.

I will use this text in the argument section of my essay; it contains a great deal of information about how handgun purchasing policies lessen gun violence. It will also help me brainstorm the various ways in which federal officials can go about creating and implementing certain policies that control handgun purchasing.

Hemenway, David. Private Guns, Public Health. University of Michigan Press, 2017.

In this text, the author, David Hemenway, investigates approaches to reducing gun violence in the U.S. He examines various gun policy developments to illustrate his main point—that gun violence should be treated as a public health issue and preventive measures should be taken. The text is both informational and argumentative; Hemenway provides a substantial amount of information about gun use, weapons manufacturing, gun-related crime, and firearm policy to argue that lawmakers should take preventive rather than punitive measures against gun violence. 

The text is credible; Hemingway is a researcher and a professor of health policy and his work was published by a reputable institution, the University of Michigan. Hemingway employs his skills as a researcher to select and analyze documents that can help the reader understand the relationship between gun policy and gun violence.

Since this text contains information about the relationship between stricter handgun purchasing requirements and crime reduction, I will use it in the argument section of my essay to illustrate the need for more federal requirements on handgun purchasing. It will help me emphasize that stricter gun policy can be used as a public health tool to prevent gun-related deaths.

Wolock, Timothy M. “Estimating the Effect of State-Level Gun Purchasing Policy on County-Level Firearm Suicide Mortality.” University of Washington, University of Washington Libraries, 2016.

In this study from the University of Washington, the author, Timothy M. Wolock, assesses the effectiveness of handgun permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws on the prevention of suicide by firearms. Wolock conducts mathematical analyses on PTP policy and implementation data to illustrate his main point—that there is a positive correlation between stricter handgun control and suicide prevention. The study is mainly informational, containing statistical and sensitivity analyses that showcase the relationship between PTP laws and firearm suicide. 

The study is credible; it is a scholarly project undertaken by a member of a reputable university. Moreover, Wolock uses mathematical and scientific methods to collect and analyze his data. The only noticeable limitation to the information presented in this study is that it was not peer-reviewed before its publication. 

I will use this study in the argument section of my essay because it will help me explain PTP policies, their current use, and the ways in which other regions of the country can implement them. It will also help me illustrate how PTP policies for handguns reduce civilian death.