Annotated Bibliography – The Australian Underbelly

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Research material was collected on the basis of Australian identity with an emphasis on the changing shift in the society of Australia during colonial times as well as post-colonial times. All of the materials collected provide adequate and pertinent discourse on the subject of The Australian Underbelly and its importance to the identity of Australia both from a historical and contemporary context. The annotated bibliography was organized by material type rather than importance as each material presented is equally noteworthy in the research topic of the Australian Underbelly. 

The journal articles mostly assess and apply research skills and methods for understanding the colonial and post-colonial effects on the Aboriginal people as well as the identity of Australia. The book complements the research provided by the journal articles in that it establishes the relationship Australia has with other parts of the world and helps to identify what Australia is all about from a historical context as well as a contemporary one. The website illuminates a more in-depth understanding of Australian identity and how it has been lost over time due to the prevailing colonial thought processes and methodologies as well as the many groups that have come and gone from the continent.


Huggan, Granham. Australian Literature: Postcolonialism, Racism, Transnationalism (Oxford Studies in Postcolonial Literatures). (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Huggan presents several different readings on the literature associated with Australia and the changing dynamic of colonialism to post-colonialism as well as the relationship the continent has to the globalized world. Huggan seeks to provide a unique approach to the concerns associated with Australian identity and the rejuvenation of Australia as an unmistakably important continent on the planet.

Journal Articles

Ahluwalia, Pal. "Towards (Re) Conciliation: The Post-Colonial Economy of Giving."Social Identities 6.1 (2000): 29-48.

Ahluwalia's article examines the post-colonial economy of countries such as Australia. Much of the article is comprised of background information assessing the multicultural attitudes of the inhabitants of Australia, in particular, the Aboriginals. Using prior writings on the subject, the statement is made that Australia is recognized for its Aboriginality and the recharacterized after colonial times. The material presented in the article describes the attitudes of Australia in post-colonial times.

Attwood, Bain. “Aboriginal history, minority histories and historical wounds: the postcolonial condition, historical knowledge and the public life of history in Australia."Postcolonial Studies 14.2 (2011): 171-186. 

Attwood examines the historical conditioning and public life of the Aboriginals noting their history as a voice of experience replete with historical wounds. The public life of Australia for Attwood was heavily influenced by the postcolonial condition. Attwood outlines the significance this plays in the relationship between Australia and the United States as well as the history of colonization in Australia. Heavy research is done pertaining to the political and social mores of Australia during post-colonial times.


Bielefeld explores the financial limitations of colonial Australia and the reasons for that. The author questions whether the laws intentionally were created to dominate the Indigenous peoples or if they became that way through political attitudes. Discrimination is examined within the context of how it affected the Indigenous people of Australia. Much of the article is comprised of social justice conceptualization and analysis of legislative policy pertaining to Australia during colonial times.

Bliuc, Ana-Maria, Craig McGarty, Lisa Hartley, and Daniela M. Hendres. "Manipulating national identity: the strategic use of rhetoric by supporters and opponents of the ‘Cronulla riots’ in Australia." Ethnic and Racial Studies 35.12 (2012): 2174-2194. 

Bliuc discusses the history of the collective actions of groups within Australia. The analysis of the violence in Australia is looked into specifically from a sociological perspective. The authors reason that much of Australian identity has been shaped by the groups that have attempted to dominate the thinking of society in the country both before and after colonial times.

Cowlishaw, Gillian. "Mythologising culture - Part 2: Disturbing aboriginality in the suburbs." The Australian Journal of Anthropology 22 (2011): 170–188.

Cowlishaw's article discusses the mythologizing culture of the Aboriginal people of Australia and how they are being called on to establishes social representation and iconic forms in Australia. The author considers the structural implications of suburban Aborigines as well as the post-colonial activities and responses of the control of the Aboriginal people in Australia. Cowlishaw does a significant job of describing the history of the Aboriginal people in this article.

Dunne, Timothy. "Colonial Encounters in International Relations: Reading Wight, Writing Australia." Australian Journal of International Affairs 51.3 (1997): 309-322.

Timothy Dunne assesses the history of the Aborigines as it pertains to the colonial encounters they experienced and how this altered the culture of the group. Dunne speaks to the frameworks and constructs of identity within groups of people who resided in Australia and how they were/are identified with the context of Australia today. Dunne does a notable job of outlining the history of colonial Australia in this article.

Harvey, Mark. "Lexical change in pre-colonial Australia." Diachronica 28.3 (2011): 345–381.

Harvey's article examines the changes in linguistics in Australia both in a pre-colonial context. Harvey opts to use the continent of Australia in order to show irregularity in the phenomenon of lexical differentiation in languages. This provides an examination of how language has evolved in Australia over time.

Hickling-Hudson, Anne. " Cultural Complexity, Post-Colonialism And Educational Change: Challenges For Comparative Educators." Review of Education 52 (2006): 201–218. 

Hickling-Hudson examines the complexity of post-colonialism and its effect on Australian education. There appears to have been a refashioning according to Hickling-Hudson. The author argues that educators can benefit from utilizing post-colonial thinking within the continent of Australia and education in general. This is helpful to research on the history of Australia within the colonial framework.

Hicks, Shauna. "Unlock The Past: Promoting History, Genealogy And Heritage In Australia And New Zealand." Aplis 25.2 (2012): 61-65. Print.

Hicks traces the genealogy of the history of Australia and New Zealand in an effort to expose individuals to the rich historical depth that both have. For Hicks, unlocking the past is important for heritage and historical purposes. It allows for an archival apprehension to be gleaned as well as attracts tourists to want to know about the significance of the history of each.

Hiscock, Peter. "Beyond the Dreamtime: Archaeology and explorations of religious change in Australia." World Archaeology 45.1 (2013): 124 –136. 

Hiscock seeks to understand the changes in mythology and ritual practice in Australia. Much of his discourse presents elements regarding the shifts in religions over time both in ancient and present-day Australia. Hiscock notes how archaeology can be useful in making both general and definitive statements about the religion of the Aboriginal people.

Litster, Mirani, and Lynley A. Wallis. "Looking for the proverbial needle? The archaeology of Australian colonial frontier massacres." Archaeology Oceania 46 (2011): 105–117.

The authors seek to preserve the Australian colonial massacres. Their understanding is explored within the specific historical accounts of how certain massacre sites during colonial times were preserved for historical use. The authors seek to understand how evidence from colonial massacre sites can provide them with as much information about the Indigenous people as possible and the particular significance to the identification of people living in Australia today. The authors explore the complexities of certain archaeological techniques and their basis in elucidating written and verbal accounts of the massacres.

Luckman, Susan. "Tropical cosmopolitanism and outdoor food markets in (post)colonial Australia." Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies 25.5 (2011): 653–667. 

Luckman examines the definition of banal cosmopolitanism within a post-colonial Australian framework. Luckman seeks to understand the cultural shift as well as the complex history of postcolonial Australia through food market visiting and cuisine dynamics.

Neumann, Klaus. "Anxieties in Colonial Mauritius and the Erosion of the White Australia Policy." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 32.3 (2004): 1-24. 

Neumann purports that certain circumstances caused a shift in the reputation of Australia as it pertains to perception. The author reasons that colonial Australia and its attitudes have changed both domestic and international opinion of the continent. Australia, he reasons, is not the white only authority that many have often noted it as being given the many groups that have migrated to the continent. Australia's character and history have evolved, according to Neumann, who sees Australia as a different place than pre-colonial times.

Norman, Sue. "The New South Wales Aboriginal Lands Trust and its place in history."Australian Aboriginal Studies 2 (2011): 88-101.

Norman explores the Aboriginal Lands Trust and its place within the history of the Australian underbelly. The trust according to Norman was a document of self-determination of the Aboriginal people to promote their ideals about government. Norman ascertains that documents of this nature have been lost and the ones that remain are housed in public collection libraries and/or kept in boxes.

O'Brien, Patricia. "Remaking Australia’s Colonial Culture?: White Australia and its Papuan Frontier 1901-1940." Australian Historical Studies 40 (2009): 96-112. 

O'Brien seeks to offer a philosophical understanding of Australian governments during 1901-1940 as well as how British imperial theories have influenced Australian thought since colonial times. There is also an examination of how these influences affected the Indigenous people of the Pacific.

O'Dowd, Mary. "Australian Identity, History and Belonging: The Influence of White Australian Identity on Racism and the Non-acceptance of the History of Colonisation of Indigenous Australians." The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations 10.6 (2011): 29-42.

O'Dowd speaks to the brutal colonization of the Indigenous Australians and how this has been absent from Australian history and academics for the most part up until the 1960s. O'Dowd seeks to understand why there was so much ignorance of the past within the purview of Australian history. The author's article is one that seeks to identify the hidden silence that was accepted with the exclusion of certain events in historical texts associated with Australia. This article is significant in identity the national identity of people in Australia both during and post-colonial times.

Porter, Libby. "Planning in (Post)Colonial Settings: Challenges for Theory and Practice."Planning Theory & Practice 7.4 (2006): 383–396.

Porter's article presents a social planning process for Australia to be more inclusive of the cultures of Indigenous people within the continent. More specifically, Porter analyzes the attitudes of western Victoria as it pertains to newly cemented relationships with the townsfolk and the Indigenous people who reside there. Through a theoretical framework, Porter reasons that there can be practices put into place to overcome any cultural issues that arise.

Putnis, Peter. "NEWS, TIME AND IMAGINED COMMUNITY IN COLONIAL AUSTRALIA." Media History 16.2 (2010): 153-170.

Putnis broadly discusses the contexts of overseas news in Australia's colonial press and how that affected the relationships the continent had with others. Putnis also outlines the engagement of editors and publishers to give certain perspectives on colonial Australia and the increasing changes that occurred as a result of these perspectives. Putnis also examines communications technology and its evolvement in Australia during colonial times.

Short, Damien. "Australia: a continuing genocide?" Journal of Genocide Research 12 (2010): 1-2.

Short analyzes the practices of colonial genocide and its relative importance to many of the problems that occurred within Australia as a result. Certain viewpoints on the subject of frontier killings and child removal practices as examined as well as the methodologies associated with cultural genocide in Australia. Short bears as much expression of the genocidal relations in Australia as possible in this particular article to form a certain delineation regarding the history of Australia during colonial times.

Stadler, Jane. "The Outback Landscape and Negative Spaces in Australia's Colonial History." Metro Magazine 163, 68-73.

Much of Stadler's article is written as a review of The Proposition by Hillcoat (2005). Stadler seeks to understand the film and its historical importance to the colonial landscape of Australia. The film, Stadler, writes depicts a larger canvas in detailing the contemporary and colonial attitudes of the continent. Stadler understands the notability of the history associated with the nation's harsh past and interprets The Proposition as a cultural representation of the history of Australia.

Thomas, Glen. "Post-Colonial Interrogations." Social Alternatives 12.3 (1993): 8-11. 

Thomas examines the terms colonial and post-colonial and how they are used in the literature pertaining to Australian history. Thomas seeks to understand how the colonial period was constructed and its effects on the Aboriginal people. Through a discourse on the habitation of certain people in Australia, Thomas is able to ascertain the implications of the treatment of the Aboriginal people and the shifting of thoughts toward them in Australia. Thomas examines the presence of Aborigines after colonialism took effect and the resistant attitudes towards nationalism in the continent. Through an analysis of certain novels on colonialism, Thomas is able to see certain patterns associated with characters in the literature and the realities of Australia during colonial times.

Tranter, Bruce, and Jed Donoghue. "Colonial and post-colonial aspects of Australian identity." The British Journal of Sociology 58.2 (2007): 165-183. 

Tranter and Donoghue examine the contemporary identity of Australia and highlight the celebration of colonialism. They ascertain that the continent's national identity has been weaved through a variety of factors, some less important than others. Much of their research leaned towards convicts and bushrangers, as they call them in how the national identity of Australia was formed and what it has become as of post-colonial times. The authors analyze the attitudes of Australia on convicts in a qualitative framework and seek to establish how individuals see certain convicts as heroic figures and the typologies associated with identity in politicians in Australia. This article is significant in that it examines Australian history from a sociological aspect to understand the historical validity of colonialism and its impact on cultural society.

Veracini, Lorenzo. "Historylessness: Australia as a settler colonial collective."Postcolonial Studies 10.3 (2007): 271-285. 

Veracini notes that Australia has little history when examined outside of a colonial perspective. Veracini seeks to understand why this is the case through a series of mythological literature and historiographies. The author reasons that much of the historical consciousness of Australia was formed during colonialism thus this is what has led to the lack of history associated with the continent outside of the colonial schema.


"Does Australia need a national identity?." The Australian Identity. Convict Creations, 2013. <>. [accessed 27 May 2013]

Does Australia need a national identity? discusses the problems associated with defining a national identity for Australia. The article states that this is a problematic issue for many countries, but that Australia needs to be reoriented and established as a strong continent that is recognizable in the realm of identity. Despite the flow of ideas, cultural traditions and ideals that exist in Australia, it has had significant difficulty in identifying itself as a viable place in the world because of the psychological health of its inhabitants. The psychology of its inhabitants has been due to a lack of identity or rather an identity defined through colonial thought and the shifting mental stability post-colonialism.