The tilt of the Earth’s axis, as well as Earth’s rotation around the sun, produces what has been labeled the four seasons. The two seasons that contrast the most are winter and summer. Winter is often described as cold, while summer is described as hot. Winter is the result of the Earth’s axis being farthest away from the sun. Summer, meanwhile, is the result of the Earth’s axis being closest to the sun.
Winter typically brings the coldest temperatures year-round to regions. The season begins and ends at different times around the world, depending on the region as well as other factors such as cultural norms. Winter occurs between fall and spring. It typically begins around December for the Northern Hemisphere, and in June for the Southern Hemisphere. In terms of adaptation, many species of animals make changes during the winter season. Examples include birds that migrate, hibernating bears and stockpiling squirrels. All of these strategies help animals survive the sometimes brutal winters. Further, regions closest to the equator experience the least extreme winters, sometimes indistinguishable from other seasons. For example, the North Pole will have frigid and harsh winters, whereas more moderate regions of the world may only experience cold rain or a moderate decrease in temperature. Like winter, summer varies around the world.
Summer usually produces warmer temperatures to regions around the world. Like winter, summer also varies regarding when it commences and ends. Summer occurs between spring and fall. Just like winter, summer occurs at polar opposite times in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Unlike winter, summer is more extreme for regions closer to the equator. These regions often experience hotter summers. In terms of increased temperature, the region contributes greatly to environmental changes. For example, a summer in the sub-tropic and tropic regions, produce what is called wet summers with habitual rainfall. By comparison, the continent of Australia experiences dry summers. Finally, unlike winter, summer also produces longer days and shorter nights.
While winter and summer are undoubtedly important to the meteorological makeup of the Earth, they are radically different seasons. Winter and summer also affect the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at opposite times during the year. Also, these seasons produce radically different, but similarly harsh results, for the various regions around the world.