Foreign Relations and Globalization

The following sample Political Science annotated bibliography is 3245 words long, in MLA format, and written at the undergraduate level. It has been downloaded 765 times and is available for you to use, free of charge.

CITATION:

Kang, Jiyeon, and Nancy Abelmann. "The Domestication of South Korean Pre-College Study Abroad in the First Decade of the Millennium." Journal of Korean Studies. 16.1 (2011): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/login? auth=0&type=summary&url=/ journals/journal_of_korean_studies/v016/16.1.kang.html>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

This article was published in 2010 and has not been revised or updated.  It focuses on the Pre-College Study Abroad programs (referred to as PSA) in South Korea and the shifts which have occurred since the early 1990s.  Jiyeon Kang is an assistant professor of communication studies and international programs at the University of Iowa.  Nancy Abelmann is the Harry E. Preble Professor of Anthropology, Asian American Studies, and East Asian Languages and Cultures and associate vice- chancellor for research, humanities, arts and related fields at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.  This essay was published in the Journal of Korean Studies, volume 16 July 2011 and is supported by statistical evidence and anthropological facts.  

KEYWORDS:

domestication; South Korea; globalization; education, international relations

MAIN CLAIM:

Kang and Abelmann claim that the decline in economic and social conditions in South Korea explains much of the exodus of pre-college students to study abroad programs and discuss the ramifications of such.

READING NOTES:

 -South Korean’s under considerable pressure to globalize children at an early age

-The decade long increase of PSA in South Korea is largely in part to the media

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION: 

a). “From the 1990s to the early 2000s, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of pre-college study abroad students that have come from South Korea.”

1. statistical evidence, positions argument for globalization

b). “The shift towards sending children into such programs appears to escalate the general feeling of the society, which is seen in social and economic anxieties.”

1. qualifies the argument

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:  

-Is it possible to get a good education in Korea?

-How much within the schools is overlooked, how much of abroad schools are hyped?

CITATION:

Kim, Samuel S. Korea's Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

This book was published in June 2000.  Samuel Kim, a senior research scholar at Columbia University, is the author/editor of 23 books on East Asian international relations, Chinese and Korean foreign relations, and world order studies.  He has published more than 160 articles in edited volumes and leading international relations journals, including American Journal of International Law, The China Quarterly, Asian Survey, International Interactions, International Organization, International Journal, Journal of Peace Research, World Politics, and World Policy Journal.  This book is supported by detailed analysis and illustrative case studies.

KEYWORDS:

factors of international relations; industrialization; democratic consolidation

MAIN CLAIM:

Kim confronts the paradox of South Korea’s globalization and subsequent democratic consolidation, highlighting in a variety of essays the ways in which globalization hurts and helps the nation of South Korea.

READING NOTES:

-Korea’s globalization drive was initiated by the state.

-Few other countries have suffered the ups and downs of globalization as South Korea has.

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). ”Globalization is not a singular condition, let alone a process.  Globalization can foster more globalization, to be sure, but it can also foster localization in various backlash forms.”

1. presents evidence for the paradoxical effects of globalization in South Korea

b). “For the purpose of this analysis, I define globalization as a set of processes of stretching and intensifying worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of human relations and transactions – economic, social, cultural, environmental, political, diplomatic, and security – such that events, decisions, and activities in one part of the world have immediate consequences for individuals, groups, and states in other parts of the world.”

1. defines globalization for his own purposes, it is a broad term so it helps

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-In what other ways is globalization paradoxical?  

-How does the US relate in terms of globalization policy?

CITATION:

Koo, Hagen. "The Changing Faces of Inequality in South Korea in the Age of Globalization." Korean Studies. 31. (2007): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ks/summary/v031/31.1koo.html>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Hagen Koo is a professor of Sociology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.  Born in Seoul Korea, he received his BA and Ph.D. from Northwestern University and has published numerous books on the political economy of South Korea and the development of East Asia.  This collection of essays uses statistics, media reports and published academic studies to demonstrate the depth of inequality.   

KEYWORDS:

consumption; education; residential segregation

MAIN CLAIM:

The social inequality experienced in contemporary South Korean society is directly related to the current wave of globalization.

READING NOTES:

-The financial crisis of 1997 was a major disruption in the economy

-the rise of consumption due to globalization’s opening of the world market

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “Economic inequality in South Korea has grown significantly over the past decade, and the growing disparity is manifested in every aspect of social life from consumption pattern and lifestyle to residential segregation and educational opportunities.”

1. provides evidence in three forms of economic inequality, leads into the point

b). “This new pattern of social inequality has emerged in the context of globalization and is closely related to the economic, cultural, and ideological changes brought about by this macro-global force.”

1. drives the point across regarding the wave of globalization and it’s negative effects

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-as soon as a country begins to prosper in a global economy, the level of consumption also rises.  What are the potential positives of this situation?

CITATION:

Lee , Doo Hyoo. "A study of the life and culture of young Korean students studying in the United States." Educational Research and Reviews. 5.2 (2010): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.academicjournals.org/ERR/PDF/Pdf 2010/Feb/Lee.pdf>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Accepted for publication in 2009 and published in 2010, Doo Hyoo Lee uses interviews as well as statistics to present the way in which transnational South Korean students behave and interact during their time abroad.

KEYWORDS:

transnational education; transnational family; parental involvement

MAIN CLAIM:

The students selected in the study all agreed that a US education was a preferential place to be educated when compared to Korea.

READING NOTES:

-The participants resided in Northwestern cities of the United States, such as Northern Oregon and Southern Washington.

-The phenomenon of transnational education is a representation of globalization.

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “The US education system was comparatively free and loose to the Korean education system, which was fierce and competitive.”

1. direct quote from student

b). “The biggest problem Korean students faced in the beginning of their study abroad was understanding the different jargon and language used in the classroom.”

1. illustrates the difficulty in truly understanding another language

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-What are some of the differences between private educations vs. public education in America?  In South Korea?

CITATION:

Lubeck, Sally, Patricia A. Jessup, and Abigail M. Jewkes. "Globalization and its discontents: Early childhood education in a new world order." Volume Advances in Early Education and Day Care. 11 (2001): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1782895&show=abstract>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Written by Sally Lubeck, Patricia A. Jessup and Abigail M. Jewkes, “Globalization and its discontents” supports the claim that educational systems are not keeping up with the global economy and workplace.  The chapter utilizes numerous case studies which highlight the issues of current ECEC policy.  All information included in the chapter is intended to create a contextual framework for international ECEC policy and improve the current situation.  It uses facts about current ECEC policies and individual case studies to make its point.  

KEYWORDS:

curriculum; parent involvement; ECEC policy; globalization, immigration in education

MAIN CLAIM: 

This particular chapter discusses the need for reform of early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies that relate to globalization.

READING NOTES:

-Parent involvement plays such a strong role in the area of ECEC policy, as much is determined by the parent’s willingness to pursue educational opportunities for their child.

-the way in which cross-national policies interact is not cohesive enough for a globalized society.

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “Recent ECEC policy concerns and initiatives are evident in the areas of governance and regulation, funding, access, curriculum, staff recruitment and retention, and parent involvement.”

1. provides specific areas where recent policies need improvement

b).  “There must be international efforts to forge a shared vision of children’s rights in order to provide the most level playing field for the youth of the world to be able to work together.” 

1. provides a claim which also has a goal in mind

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-It must be difficult to try and retain the values of one’s culture when another’s culture is constantly infiltrating it

CITATION:

Park, Ju-Hee, and Young In Kwon. "Parental goals and parenting practices of upper-middle-class Korean mothers with preschool children." Journal of Early Childhood Research. 15. (2009): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://ecr.sagepub.com/content/7/1/58.short>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

This study was published in 2009 and focuses on the real-life case studies of 20 Korean mothers and their children.  Using such real-world examples, the study provides an interesting insight into the parental goals of Korean mothers.

KEYWORDS:

korean mother; parenting practices; parenting style

MAIN CLAIM:

Korean mothers' parenting beliefs focus on “raising a child with good social and emotional characteristics”, while their reported practices mainly concentrated on children's academic achievements.

READING NOTES:

-Many mothers admit to following social expectations rather than their own insights

-The western world runs the global economy

-Parents need just as much guidance as children

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “In a sense, English works as both a local and global sign in that the status of an individual is raised not only on a global scale for being bilingual, but the individual also gains respect for mastering a language different from their own at a younger age, especially one that is so difficult to become fluent in.”

1. exemplifies the complicated union of localization and globalization, and just how much of education is related to status.

b). “Many mothers admit to following expectations that did not correspond with their personal parental beliefs and goals.”

1. this fact shows the social pressure which is placed upon Korean parents, as well as the importance again of status.

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-does wealth equal educated?

CITATION:

Park, So Jin, and Nancy Abelmann. "Class and Cosmopolitan Striving: Mothers' Management of English Education in South Korea." Anthropological Quarterly. 77.4 (2004): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/anq/summary/v077/77.4park.html>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Nancy Abelmann, a noted scholar and professor (also authored the previous source) and So Jin Park focus on three Korean mothers with different class distinctions.  By using these real people, they are able to gain an understanding of the differences in English education when class distinction is involved.

KEYWORDS:

class distinction; English education; after school education; cosmopolitan

MAIN CLAIM:

English works simultaneously as both a local and global sign, and nationalism and cosmopolitanism are not contradictory to one another.

READING NOTES:

-The way in which the mother manages her child’s English education can be applied to their specific class spectrum

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “English works as an index of South Korea's and South Koreans' cosmopolitan striving in the global order.”

1. as evidenced by the case studies, the extent of one’s English education is clearly related to one’s class

b). “English works simultaneously as both a local and global sign, and nationalism and cosmopolitanism are not contradictory.”

1. a clear demonstration of Park and Abelmann’s view on English education, it presents the main claim

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-If one of a lower class somehow got themselves an advanced English education, could they then surpass their social class?  How much of one’s class is really related to English education?  How much of it is related to other social factors?

CITATION:

Park, Sung-Jung. "The change of South Korea adult education in globalization." International Journal of Lifelong Education. 21.3 (2002): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02601370210127873>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Sung-Jung Park is a research fellow at the Korean Women’s Development Institute.  Publishing numerous articles in the areas of lifelong education and adult education, this article aims to discuss the challenges facing South Korean adults in their pursuit of education, and how globalization affects their educational choices.

KEYWORDS:

adult education; industrialization; social education; modernization, education leadership

MAIN CLAIM:

Since the 1990s, adult education in Korea has been faced with massive change under globalization and this article aims to discuss some of the problems that come with such a change.  The article mainly focuses on the way in which the international community must act to address some of the issues.

READING NOTES:

-Much of adult education’s development is in relation to social circumstances

-Adults often don’t have the same opportunities as children education-wise

-Educated adults make an educated and well-rounded society

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “In this process of social transformation, the most important power is educated people.”  

1. a claim that everyone can agree upon, for adults and children

b). “In Globalization, South Korean adult education has been required to play an active social role for adapting to changing circumstances.”

1. prefaces the argument for the need to adopt a different approach to adult education and education in general

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-In what ways does the philosophy behind adult education differ when compared to children’s education?  

CITATION:

Shin, Gi-Wook. "The Paradox of Korean Globalization." Asia/Pacific Research Center. (2002): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20125/Shin.pdf>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

A professor of Sociology at Stanford and the Director of the Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center, Gi-Wook Shin highlights the values of certain “experimental” education practices, using real-world examples pulled from his own research.  

KEYWORDS:

experimental education; nationalism; globalization; technology

MAIN CLAIM:

A coexistence of nationalism and globalization must exist for a nation to thrive, and this essay provides a theoretical framework to explain how this came to be.

READING NOTES:

From a nationalist perspective, globalization should not be fully embraced and be the reason for the implementation of systematic changes to a nation.

-Reasons being, they are trying to protect their cultural heritage from Western influence.  

-A lot of the “Western influence” has to do with industrialization and modernization

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a).”Koreans see no inherent contradiction between nationalism and globalization.  In fact, Koreans initiated and pursued globalization with a clear nationalistic agenda from the outset.”

1). this describes the paradoxical yet universal notion that globalization is a nationalistic goal and is integrated into Korea’s education system as such.  

2). It provides evidence that this form of thinking is necessary to compete in today’s global economy.

b). “Seoul has become a global city, just like New York, London, Tokyo, or Paris.  Paradoxically, such extensive globalization has not weakened or removed Korean nationalism.”

1. contrary to other countries, Shin positively approaches the issue of nationalism vs. globalization and highlights the interesting case of South Korea

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-What are some other examples of countries in which nationalistic pride coexists with the spread of globalization?

CITATION:

Stewart, Vivien. Globalization and Education. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. Web. <http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111016/chapters/Globalization-and-Education.asp&xgt>.

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

This chapter comes from the book “A World-Class Education,” and is well researched and fact-driven.  There are numerous charts from reputable sources to help illustrate the statistics, and it presents everything in a report style format, breaking down the information logically.

KEYWORDS:

Education reform; globalization

MAIN CLAIM:

The effect of globalization can be felt everywhere, and it is not only improving our economy but our education as well.

READING NOTES:

-Globalization is all around us, from the food we eat to the clothes we wear.

-lack of diversity is not necessarily the key to academic success

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “What is becoming more and more apparent is the need for employees with knowledge of foreign languages and cultures to market products to customers around the globe and to work effectively with foreign employees and partners in other countries.”

1. illustrates the need to adopt new marketing practices in the wake of the global economy

b). “While manufacturing has largely moved out of the developed world into countries with lower labor costs, the exponential growth of the economies of India and China and the smaller-scale growth of other economies such as Russia and Brazil, have also created enormous demand for U.S. products—high-end industrial goods, cars, luxury items, agricultural products, and so on—and have increased the numbers of tourists coming to the United States and the numbers of undergraduate and graduate students flocking to American universities.”

1. illustrates the shifts which the global economy has brought, the US no longer a source of industry

2. shows how interconnected it all is

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-why would a homogenous population perform better in academics statistically than a non-homogenous one? 

CITATION:

Stromquist, Nelly Penaloza, and Karen Monkman. Globalization and Education: integration and contestation across cultures. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefied Publishers, Inc., 2000. Print. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Stromquist, a professor of International Education Policy and Monkman, a professor of 

Educational Policy Studies and Research are both well versed and invested in all matters of education.  Their thoughts on the globalized economy and education’s place in it bring a lot of key points to the table, from South Korea and beyond.  The essays in this collection are informative and useful for understanding the role of education in globalization. 

KEYWORDS:

internationalization; multilateralism; globalization; education

MAIN CLAIM:

Though they are under-budgeted, a vital component to any country’s adaptation to the new global economy is through education.  

READING NOTES:

-Education is the most vital, yet often overlooked component to a successful society.

-A celebrated cultural background is crucial, but in order to compete in the world marketplace, one must be educated on the cultures and markets of others.

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “Today’s massive governments of capital depend on information, communication, and knowledge in global markets.

1. makes the claim that we have shifted from separate national economies to one giant global economy.

b). “Governments are under pressure to reduce the growth of public spending on education and to find other sources of funding for the expected expansion of their educational systems.”

1. this highlights the plight of many education reformers and students face

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-Is this new global economy more fragile, or stronger than the previous, more fragmented economy?

CITATION:

Yang, Sonam, and Chang Sik Shin. "Parental attitudes towards education: What matters for children's well-being?." Children and Youth Services Review. 30.11 (2008): n. page. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019074090800100X>. 

CRAAP TEST ANALYSIS:

Qualitative methodologies were used, including semi-structured interviews with 34 participants regarding education and their child’s success.  This text uses in-depth, personal research to delve into the issue of child education and the concerns regarding the educational success of children.

KEYWORDS:

academic achievement; child welfare; education

MAIN CLAIM:

It is important that children have financial and social success, but it is also vitally important that children’s developmental needs are also met.

READING NOTES:

-Children’s developmental needs are often overlooked by the parents in the name of education.

-All of the parents in the study placed importance on education as a means for personal advancement, a wealthier life, or higher social status. 

KEY QUOTATIONS/JUSTIFICATION:

a). “Globalization will weaken the functional power of the nation-state…. and will disrupt the ethnic or national identity of the people.”

1. a common fear of globalization, this presents an opposing nationalistic view for contrast

b). “Western technology, Eastern spirit.”

1. this sums up the author’s thoughts on globalization pretty succinctly; utilize the now globalized technology of the west, yet keep the spirit of South Korea intact

CONTINUING YOUR THINKING:

-Is it really possible to have a globalized society/economy and still retain nationalistic pride and identity?